MONUMEN JOGJA KEMBALI (MONJALI)
The Track of Six-Hours Occurrence in Yogyakarta
Updated on 4/6/2018
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1 March 1949, 06.00 a.m.
Yogyakarta City Center
The sound of serene signaling break time sounded from the Dutch defense post. Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, Commander of Brigade 10 of Wehrkreise III area, an attack to the Dutch defense was started after getting an agreement from Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX as initiator of the attack. The Dutch troop that since the Dutch Military Aggression II in December 1948 was distributed to small posts was separated and weakened. During six hours, Indonesian National Army succeeded in occupying Yogyakarta, after hitting the Dutch troop. Right at 12.00 in the afternoon, as it was planned, all Indonesian army drew back from the city center when the Dutch support came; total loose at the Dutch side.
This battle known as Serangan Umum 1 Maret was initial authentication to the international world that Indonesian National Army still had power to fight and to state that the Republic of Indonesia still existed. This was triggered by the capture and the exile of Bung Karno and Bung Hatta to Sumatera setting propaganda that the Republic of Indonesia had not existed.
This news about the six-hour attack was then sent to Wonosari, continued to Bukit Tinggi, then Burma, New Delhi (India), and finally in the main office of the UN in New York. With this news, the United Nations that considered Indonesia to have been independent compelled the execution of KTN (Komisi Tiga Negara / Commission of Three Nations). The meeting held in Des Indes Hotel Jakarta on 14 April 1949, where Indonesia was represented by Moh. Roem and representatives of Netherlands led by Van Royen, resulted in an agreement signed on 7 May 1949. This agreement was later called Roem Royen Statement. In this agreement Netherlands was compelled to withdraw its troop from Indonesia, and to return President and the Vice President, Soekarno-Hatta to Jogja. Finally on 27 December 1949 Netherlands officially handed over the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia.
Implied and Explicit Meaning of History Hallmark
In order to commemorate the struggle history of the nation, Yogya Kembali monument was built on 29 June 1985. The placement of the first stone of the 31.8 meter-high monument was done by HB IX after planting buffalo head as traditional ceremony. Four years later, on 6 July 1989, this building was finished. The opening was done by President Soeharto by signing the inscription.
The monument that is located in Jongkang village, Sariharjo Sub-District, Ngaglik District of Sleman Regency is of a mountain shape, symbolizing fertility and preservation of pre-historical ancestor's culture. The location of the monument was based on local culture that is located on imaginary axis connecting Merapi, Tugu, Sultan Palace, Panggung Krapyak, and Parang Tritis. "Macrocosmic Axis or the Great Axis of Life", as Gunadi told YogYES. The imaginary point in the building standing on 5.6 hectare land can be seen on the third floor where the flag pole is standing.
The name Yogya Kembali that means Yogya Returns symbolizes the return of the function of Indonesian Republic Government and historical hallmark of the Dutch troop withdrawal from Yogyakarta as the capital on 29 June 1949 and the return of President Soekarno, Vice President Mohammad Hatta and other officers on 6 July 1949 to Yogyakarta.
From Aircraft Replica to Quiet Room
Entering the monument area that is located about three kilometers north of Jogja city center visitors will be welcomed by replica of Cureng Aircraft close to the east gate and replica of Guntai Aircraft close to the west entrance. Stepping up the podium at west and east sides, visitors can see two wheeled-machine guns complete with the seats, before stepping down to the open space in front of the foot of the monument mountain. At the south end of the yard stands a wall containing 420 names of the strugglers who died between 19 December 1948 and 29 June 1949 and the poem entitled Karawang Bekasi by Chairil Anwar that is intended for unknown patriots.
The monument is surrounded by fish pond that is divided by four alleys going to the main building. West and east alleys connect to the entrance of the first floor that consists of four rooms presenting at least 1,000 collections of the attack on 1 March, the struggle before the independence until Yogyakarta became the capital of Indonesia. Uniform of Student Military and the sedan chair used to carry the Great General Sudirman are kept there. There is also the main meeting room, which is located adjacent to room I. This rounded room of 25 meter diameter is a functional room that is rented for seminar of even feasts.
North and south alleys are connected to the stairs leading to the second floor at the outdoor wall that circles the building that is carved with 40 reliefs picturing the struggle of Indonesian nation from 17 August 1945 until 28 December 1949. Some historical events such as physical struggle and diplomacies since the proclamation of Indonesian independence, the return of the President and Vice President to Yogyakarta and the formation of People's Security Army are pictured in the relief. While in the building, there are 10 dioramas encircling the building and picturing situations when the Dutch troop attacked Maguwo on 19 December 1948, 1 March attack, Roem Royen Statement, and ceremony of Independence Day on 17 August 1949 in Gedung Agung Yogyakarta.
The uppermost floor is a round, quiet room with a flag pole with the red and white flag on it at the center of the room, and relief of a fist on the west wall symbolizing physical struggle and diplomacy struggle on the east wall. The Garbha Graha room functions as a place to say prayers for the heroes and remember their struggle.
By far, the history of the nation struggle is heard only from the history teachers at school, or from the story told by the grandfather to his children in law. Yogya Kembali monument gives clearer description of how the independence was achieved by looking at the dioramas, carved reliefs or collection of clothes and weapons used by the strugglers of the independence. One place that will satisfy your desires of knowledge about the road that Indonesian nation had to take to get its independence. (YogYES.COM: R. Syah)